He pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December 1928 calling on the British government to grant India dominion status or face a new campaign of non-co-operation with complete independence for the country as its goal. Gándhí se rozhodl pomoci všemi prostředky. "[258] Civil disobedience and non-co-operation as practised under Satyagraha are based on the "law of suffering",[259] a doctrine that the endurance of suffering is a means to an end.

Actor, Son of H. D. Kumaraswamy, Politician (contested 2019 General election from Mandya). 5. února 1922 však došlo k incidentu ve vesnici Čaurí Čaura, při níž účastníci původně pokojné demonstrace zapálili místní policejní stanici, v níž uhořelo 22 policistů. Welcome.

In my earlier articles, I had written about different routes to Mantrayala from Bangalore .

British political leaders such as Lord Birkenhead and Winston Churchill announced opposition to "the appeasers of Gandhi", in their discussions with European diplomats who sympathised with Indian demands. [136], According to Dennis Dalton, it was the ideas that were responsible for his wide following. Během pětadvaceti let zemřelo na 15 miliónů Indů. [230][231][232], During his stay in South Africa, along with scriptures and philosophical texts of Hinduism and other Indian religions, Gandhi read translated texts of Christianity such as the Bible, and Islam such as the Quran. Ale protentokrát bylo spojenectví ustanoveno. Toto staré náboženství bylo v Gudžarátu velmi rozšířeno a trvalo na přísném nenásilí (ahinsá) a na spojení duše a těla.

[241] According to Keith Robbins, the recruitment effort was in part motivated by the British promise to reciprocate the help with swaraj (self-government) to Indians after the end of World War I. Hlavní jeho myšlenkou je nenásilnost a neochvějná láska ke všemu a všem. . Společnost byla zhypnotizována. Postupně ztrácel přívržence, neboť ruční výroba bavlny byla z ekonomického hlediska nevýhodná a pouhá myšlenka duchovní očisty nedostatečná.

Gándhí se vrátil do rozdělené země. [372] After Gandhi's assassination, Nehru led India in accordance with his personal socialist convictions.


The Government of India awarded the annual Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers, world leaders and citizens.

Gandhi shared Hills views on the dangers of birth control, but defended Allinson's right to differ. The first Madhwa saint to enter Brindavana. In the song Porter rhymes "Mahatma Gandhi' with "Napoleon Brandy. [73] Gandhi raised eleven hundred Indian volunteers, to support British combat troops against the Boers.

[82] As another example given by Herman, Gandhi, at age 24, prepared a legal brief for the Natal Assembly in 1895, seeking voting rights for Indians. The British colonial officials made their counter move by passing the Rowlatt Act, to block Gandhi's movement. As was prevailing tradition, the adolescent bride was to spend much time at her parents' house, and away from her husband.

"[182], In 1938, Gandhi stated that his "sympathies are all with the Jews.

Dne 1. srpna 1920 Gándhí zahájil svou kampaň nespolupráce s Brity, když vrátil úřadům tři medaile, které obdržel za búrské války. The experiments began some time after the death of his wife in February 1944. [106] He reorganised the Congress. When he returned to India in 1891, his outlook was parochial and he could not make a living as a lawyer.
During this period, his long time secretary Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack, his wife Kasturba died after 18 months' imprisonment on 22 February 1944; and Gandhi suffered a severe malaria attack.

Because lasting will only be the work of such statesmen who wake up and strengthen the moral power of their people through their example and educational works. Nic v chování Angličanů se nezměnilo. A Gándhí protiútokem zahájil občanskou neposlušnost, pasivní rezistenci – satjágrahu. [124], The appeal of "Non-cooperation" grew, its social popularity drew participation from all strata of Indian society. I may change them tomorrow.

Dr. Shanti Gandhi, the son if Kantilal and Saraswathi Gandhi had stood election on a Republican ticket and he defeated his Democratic rival, Theodore Ensley in election held in Kansa’s State. Opět se začaly vyhrocovat hiduisticko-muslimské rozpory, a kromě toho vrcholil boj o nezávislost. [382], Gandhi also wrote several books including his autobiography, The Story of My Experiments with Truth (Gujarātī "સત્યના પ્રયોગો અથવા આત્મકથા"), of which he bought the entire first edition to make sure it was reprinted. Jak pravil: „Kdybych byl postaven před rozhodnutí mezi zbabělostí a násilím, zvolil bych násilí.“[zdroj?]. [327][328], Along with many other texts, Gandhi studied Bhagavad Gita while in South Africa. He returned to Rajkot to make a modest living drafting petitions for litigants, but he was forced to stop when he ran afoul of a British officer Sam Sunny. By accounts, Kantilal and Saraswathi led a happy life in.

Za dva roky, které strávil za mřížemi, však národně-osvobozenecké hnutí upadlo a ze sjezdu Kongresu v roce 1924 Gándhí odešel poražen. V těch dnech vážně onemocněl úplavicí, která vyústila v zánět slepého střeva. Gandhi's image also appears on paper currency of all denominations issued by Reserve Bank of India, except for the one rupee note.

O svém plánu brzy přesvědčil na mimořádném sjezdu v Kalkatě také Kongres, který se během několika dalších let proměnil z honoračního seskupení elit v masovou politickou stranu s jasným programem a strukturou. Členů hnutí stále přibývalo.

Gandhi's brother Laxmidas, who was already a lawyer, cheered Gandhi's London studies plan and offered to support him.

Gándhí doporučil satjágrahu. The clinic is visited by nephrology like Dr. Deepak Kumar. On 10 August 1888, Gandhi aged 18, left Porbandar for Mumbai, then known as Bombay. Shanti is the son of Kantilal Gandhi and Saraswati Gandhi and the great-grandson of the Indian Independence movement leader Mahatma Gandhi. [296], Some colonial era Christian preachers and faithfuls considered Gandhi as a saint. Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, the Muslim League Chief Minister of Bengal – now Bangladesh and West Bengal, gave Calcutta's police special holiday to celebrate the Direct Action Day.

[439] The 2014 film Welcome Back Gandhi takes a fictionalised look at how Gandhi might react to modern day India.

It is not inaction but determined passive resistance and non-co-operation where, states Arthur Herman, "love conquers hate". The question deeply interested me...I had a high regard for Mr. Hills and his generosity. Okupační vojska se stáhla, ale země krvácela. Často se vystavoval i nákaze a tato obětavost prospěla jeho reputaci. [179], At 5:17 pm on 30 January 1948, Gandhi was with his grandnieces in the garden of Birla House (now Gandhi Smriti), on his way to address a prayer meeting, when Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist, fired three bullets into his chest from a pistol at close range. '[229], Gandhi, in his autobiography, called Rajchandra his "guide and helper" and his "refuge [...] in moments of spiritual crisis".

"[365], According to Gandhi, religion is not about what a man believes, it is about how a man lives, how he relates to other people, his conduct towards others, and one's relationship to one's conception of god.

Their disagreement is the first known example of Gandhi challenging authority, despite his shyness and temperamental disinclination towards confrontation. [116] Hindu-Muslim communal conflicts reignited. [352] Nehru government's vision of an industrialised, centrally planned economy after 1947 had scant place for Gandhi's village-oriented approach.

[208][213] Historian R.B. [289], In the 1940s, Gandhi pooled ideas with some Muslim leaders who sought religious harmony like him, and opposed the proposed partition of British India into India and Pakistan.

"[375], Gandhi called for ending poverty through improved agriculture and small-scale cottage rural industries.

Brown, Judith M. (2004). However, the Hindu leaders including Rabindranath Tagore questioned Gandhi's leadership because they were largely against recognising or supporting the Sunni Islamic Caliph in Turkey. Móhandás Karamčand Gándhí zemřel s modlitbou na rtech[15] ve věku 78 let. Byla to jeho největší porážka, neboť on i jeho společníci do tohoto hnutí vložili všechno a takřka zbytečně.

I do not claim to have originated any new principle or doctrine. Na to reagovali hinduisté masakrováním muslimů a Gándhí nebojácně kráčel mezi nimi, jako by mu už nikdo z nich nemohl ublížit. His experiments with food began in the 1890s and continued for several decades.

[231][332] According to Sankar Ghose, Tagore described Gandhi as someone who did not abhor sex or women, but considered sexual life as inconsistent with his moral goals. [125] Furthermore, co-operation among Hindus and Muslims ended as Khilafat movement collapsed with the rise of Atatürk in Turkey. [376] Gandhi's economic thinking disagreed with Marx, according to the political theory scholar and economist Bhikhu Parekh. Gandhi thus began his journey aimed at crippling the British India government economically, politically and administratively. [335][336] None of the women who participated in the brahmachari experiments of Gandhi indicated that they had sex or that Gandhi behaved in any sexual way.

The two deaths anguished Gandhi. It was dedicated on October 2, 1986, the 117th anniversary of Gandhi's birth; civil rights leader Bayard Rustin delivered a keynote speech at the ceremony. In August 1947 the British partitioned the land with India and Pakistan each achieving independence on terms that Gandhi disapproved. Vesnice byly bombardovány a za oběť padlo na 25 tisíc Indů. Gandhi's life and teachings inspired many who specifically referred to Gandhi as their mentor or who dedicated their lives to spreading Gandhi's ideas. [435], Anti-Gandhi themes have also been showcased through films and plays. 1866–1913).

They went down like ninepins.

[176] The Direct Action Day triggered a mass murder of Calcutta Hindus and the torching of their property, and holidaying police were missing to contain or stop the conflict. He asked Christians to stop humiliating his country and his people as heathens, idolators and other abusive language, and to change their negative views of India.

[132] Congress estimates, however, put the figure at 90,000. (eds.) [317][318] He tried fresh and dry fruits (Fruitarianism), then just sun dried fruits, before resuming his prior vegetarian diet on advice of his doctor and concerns of his friends. Útočiště nalezl u přítele Rustomdži Šetha. The British Government agreed to free all political prisoners, in return for the suspension of the civil disobedience movement. Přestože Gándhí jen málokdy zastával v Kongresu nějakou výkonnou funkci, platil za jeho politického guru. [219], Additional theories of possible influences on Gandhi have been proposed. A Gandhian can mean either an individual who follows, or a specific philosophy which is attributed to, Gandhism. Allinson had been promoting newly available birth control methods, but Hills disapproved of these, believing they undermined public morality.

R. Mohan Kumaramangalam, an alumnus of MIT, USA (grandson of Mohan Kumaramangalam) presently the Working President of Tamil Nadu Congress Committee, President of TN Professional Congress & Coordinator of Southern Chapter (5 states & 1 UT) of AIPC. The British questioned the Congress party and Gandhi's authority to speak for all of India.

[341] Calling the doctrine of untouchability intolerable, he asserted that the practice could be eradicated, that Hinduism was flexible enough to allow eradication, and that a concerted effort was needed to persuade people of the wrong and to urge them to eradicate it. [233][236][237] Later, Gandhi translated the Gita into Gujarati in 1930. [42], In May 1883, the 13-year-old Mohandas was married to 14-year-old Kasturbai Makhanji Kapadia (her first name was usually shortened to "Kasturba", and affectionately to "Ba") in an arranged marriage, according to the custom of the region at that time.


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